What is Color Blindness?
Color blindness is a condition in which the ability to distinguish certain colors is normal. This means that a person suffering from color blindness has trouble seeing red, green, blue, or a combination.
A person's ability to see color is rarely lost (it is called monochromacy). Many people believe that only black and white colors are seen to a person suffering from color blindness. This is a misconception. There are many different types and levels of color blindness.
According to the survey, the prevalence of color blindness is 8% in men and only 0.5% in women.
Types of Color Blindness
There are three types of color blindness occured in the world.
1. Red-green color blindness
The most common type of color blindness caused by familial causes is damage or reduced red con or green con pigment function. There are four types of red-green color blindness. -
Protanomaly - This color blindness is due to the unusual occurrence of red cone pigments. In this type of color blindness, red, orange, and yellow appear green, and the colors are not bright. This condition is benign and usually does not affect daily life.
Protanopia - In this color blindness, the red cone pigments stop working, and the red color appears black. Some variants of orange, yellow and green all appear as yellow.
Deuteranomaly - This is the most common type of color blindness. It has an unusual green cone pigment. Yellow and green appear red in this, and purple and blue are difficult to identify. This condition is benign and usually does not affect daily life.
Deuteranopia - In this color blindness, green cone pigments stop working. They see red colors as brownish-yellow and green as dark yellow.
2. Blue-yellow color blindness
Blue-yellow color blindness is rarer than red-green color blindness. In this, the blue cone pigment (triton) is either absent or has a limited function. There are two types of blue-yellow color blindness.
Tritanomaly - Blue cone pigments have less function. The blue color appears green, and it cannot be easy to differentiate from pink to yellow and red.
Tritanopia - People with Tritanopia lack blue con cells. Blue appears green in this, and the yellow color looks purple or light brown.
3. Full Color Blindness (Monochromacy)
People with full-color blindness (monochromacy) do not see colors, and their clarity of vision can also be affected. There are two types of monochromacy -
Cone monochromacy - In this, two or three of the three con cell pigments do not work. People with con monochromacy have difficulty distinguishing between colors because the brain needs signals from different types of cones to see the colors. This comparison is not possible when only one type of con works.
Rod monochromacy - It is present from birth. It does not contain any of the functional pigments of Con cells. People with rod monochromacy see the world in black, white, and gray. People with rod monochromacy are photophobic and very uncomfortable in bright environments.